| The Board of Directors, in the fall of 1990, endorsed nineteen position statements on the management of campus law enforcement. These statements are noted below and may be referred to if you are asked for IACLEAs official position on any of the topics covered.
||Law Enforcement on Campus Every person has the right to access the criminal justice system to seek redress of personal wrongs. Whether law enforcement is a proprietary function of the campus or the public services offered through the state/province or municipality, citizen access to the criminal justice system is to be ensured.
Campus law enforcement should have law enforcement officers with sufficient expertise to investigate allegations of criminal wrongdoing, make arrests and referrals to the local criminal justice system as appropriate.
||Enabling Legislation Each state or province should provide legislation permitting the operation of a campus law enforcement agency and establishing standards for the operation of such departments.
||Administration Oversight The campus law enforcement agency should report to the central administration of the institution with clear and precise reporting lines. There should be no confusion as to whom the campus law enforcement agency is responsible. This office should have broad campus responsibilities and should not have a specific campus constituency such as a specific service or area of advocacy. All members of the community should be made aware of this reporting channel.
||Openness of Operation Campus law enforcement operations in a free society must not be shrouded in secrecy. There should be public disclosure of policy and an openness on matters of public interest.
||Crime Statistics and Campus Law Enforcement Records Campus law enforcement should maintain a record of criminal activity occurring within their jurisdiction. The community should be made aware of criminal incidents occurring so that each member of the community may take those precautions, as appropriate for his/her function in the community, to avoid becoming a crime victim.
Statistical information developed from campus law enforcement records and crime reports should be made available to members of the community. Through the analysis of the statistical information, other departments, agencies and groups within the community may develop programs to enhance the safety of the community and its members. The campus law enforcement agency should also use these records to evaluate the needs of the community in developing proactive crime prevention programs and law enforcement intervention programs.
||Crime Crime is a community problem, not a problem for law enforcement alone. Campus law enforcement officers can be given the responsibility of suppressing crime and solving crime once it has occurred, but they can neither prevent every crime from happening nor solve every crime that occurs. Campus law enforcement requires the active cooperation, assistance, and support of the community which it serves. The university community must recognize its responsibility for conditions which nurture or result in crime.
For a crime to occur, two factors must be present: opportunity and desire. It is the function of campus law enforcement to minimize opportunities through crime prevention activities and interception patrol. Desire is a factor controlled by the potential offender and those who influence his/her thinking. Desire is a factor over which law enforcement is encouraged to develop and implement proactive crime prevention programs which deter crime.
||Bias Violence All persons are entitled to courteous and respectful treatment without regard to race, religion, national origin, handicap, or sexual orientation. Campus law enforcement should ensure the rights guaranteed in the United States or Canadian constitutions to all persons regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, or beliefs. When such rights are infringed upon by violence, threats, or harassment, the officers should respond rapidly to identify the perpetrators and bring them before the judicial system. Acts of bias violence generate fear and concern among the victim groups and the public which is detrimental to the objectives of higher education in a diverse and multi-cultural world.
||Criminal Arrests It is better to prevent a crime or disturbance than to deal with it after it occurs. To the extent that prevention and repression fail, law enforcement must address itself to identifying those persons responsible. Identification and arrest of violators of the criminal law should be undertaken when it can be done with reasonable safety and with a minimum of hazard to the community. The decision to file criminal charges is based upon the interest of justice, the availability and desires of the victim, and whether or not the community and/or the offender would benefit from such action.
||Diversion from the Criminal Justice System The university community is uniquely equipped to divert appropriate offenders from the criminal justice process. The diversion of offenders from the criminal justice process may be considered when the institution is the victim, when the victim of the offense so desires or declines to testify in public proceedings, or when such actions would be in the best interest of the community. The decision for diversion should be made in conjunction with the appropriate prosecutors office and should not use a relationship with the institution as the only criterion.
||Discretion Individual campus law enforcement officers must necessarily exercise discretion in enforcement of the law and be guided as to what is practical with regard to basic law enforcement responsibilities. These include, but are not limited to, protection of life and property, the spirit of the criminal law, the objectives of the criminal justice system, and the limitations of resources at the time.
||Enforcement of the Laws Campus law enforcement should impartially apply the same standards to all persons regardless of race, beliefs, position, financial circumstances, social status, appearance, attitude, or other unrelated considerations.
||Arming The decision whether or not to arm campus officers is one related to program. If the campus provides a full service law enforcement agency to members of the campus community, the officers should be armed.
Campus law enforcement personnel who are provided any defensive weapon should be trained to the standards required for public-sector law enforcement personnel within the political sub-division. Campus law enforcement or security personnel provided with weapons should meet the standards established for use of those weapons as determined by the state or province in which the community is located. Clear policy statements should be implemented establishing such weapons as defensive weapons.
||Use of Force The campus law enforcement agency should develop a policy on use of force which is consistent with the public expectation as expressed in law, court decisions, and community sentiment.
||Training and Professional Development In order to meet the needs of an ever-changing society, campus law enforcement must be ever changing. Each campus law enforcement department and officer must engage in the continuing process of professional development.
Campus law enforcement officers should be trained to the standards established for public-sector law enforcement personnel. Depriving persons of their liberty is one of the most serious actions to be undertaken by the government in a democratic society. It is no less serious on a campus. Campus police personnel should be provided with a course of training which includes that required of the public sector and of the special considerations of the campus.
||Accountability and Discipline A campus law enforcement agency is accountable to the community which it serves. The actions of individual members of the agency must conform to community standards and expectations. Review systems need to be established which will ensure this accountability.
Discipline is not synonymous with punishment. A well-disciplined campus law enforcement organization is one which voluntarily conforms to the community level of expectation. Punishment is normally resorted to only when other forms of leadership and supervision have failed. The objective of discipline is to correct and modify behavior in a positive manner. Discipline is a function of the management of a campus law enforcement agency.
||Errors in Judgment Campus law enforcement by its very nature involves interaction with all members of the campus community and the community at large. Each of these actions involves a prior decision. Law enforcement personnel are required to make many decisions each day and to choose from a host of alternatives. Inevitably there will be an alternative selection which is not in the best interest of the operation. The campus law enforcement agency and its personnel must profit from alternative review and be constantly critical of their own policies and actions. When a mistake occurs, openly admitting the mistake is the first step in correcting it.
||Engaging in Unlawful or Deceptive Practices The employment of an illegal means, no matter how worthy the objective, is certain to encourage disrespect for the law and the agency which enforces it. If the law is to be respected, it must first be respected by those who administer its enforcement. Violations of the law or disregard for the safety or property on the part of an officer is intrinsically wrong and self-defeating.
||Law Enforcement and Service Requirements While a primary function of campus law enforcement is to provide the basic functions for the criminal justice services, on a campus there are many related service functions which can serve to reduce the opportunity for crime. The campus law enforcement agency should engage in these supportive service functions which meet the expectations of the community. Such functions as educational programming, crime prevention, analysis and enhancement of physical facilities such as lighting, access control, and escort services serve to reduce individual apprehensions of crime and facilitate functioning of the community.
Campus law enforcement should undertake those services which support the community and reduce concern for crime and victimization.
||Non-Commissioned Personnel in Law Enforcement Duties The complex nature of law enforcement demands knowledge, skill, training, and experience. Judgments frequently required are beyond the preparation, responsibility, or authority of private citizens. Personnel who do not have the necessary judgment resulting from the acquisition of this knowledge and skill acquired through law enforcement training should not be assigned to functions which may require them to question, detain, or restrain the movements of citizens.