RESOURCE DOCUMENTS: POLICE & PUBLIC SAFETY EVOLVING PRACTICES
Please note: IACLEA prepared this list of documents and links to other resources as a service to our members and the broader campus public safety community as they work with their campus communities to examine their operations, structures, and policies. IACLEA does not specifically endorse the resources on this list. They are presented for informational purposes only. This list is not inclusive of the full body of research on this important topic.
Agencies desiring to conduct training, provide a forum for facilitated conversations with their community, obtain assistance in reviewing policies and procedures, and more can apply for free training and technical assistance.
The Collaborative Reform Initiative Technical Assistance Center (CRI-TAC) program provides critical and tailored technical assistance resources to state, local, territorial, and tribal law enforcement agencies on a wide variety of topics. It features a “by the field, for the field” approach while delivering individualized technical assistance using leading experts in a range of public safety, crime reduction, and community policing topics. CRI-TAC is a public service and offered at no cost to your agency. IACLEA is one of nine law enforcement organizations promoting CRI-TAC.
Documents Prepared by Police Organizations, Academic Institutions, and Civic Agencies
Active Bystandership for Law Enforcement Project (ABLE)
Created by: The Georgetown Innovative Policing Program, partnering with global law firm Sheppard Mullin
Years of academic research and on-the-ground experience has shown us that effective active bystandership can be taught. The Georgetown Innovative Policing Program, partnering with global law firm Sheppard Mullin, has created Project ABLE (Active Bystandership for Law Enforcement) to prepare officers to successfully intervene to prevent harm and to create a law enforcement culture that supports peer intervention.
Project ABLE is a national hub for training, technical assistance, and research, all with the aim of creating a police culture in which officers routinely intervene as necessary to: prevent misconduct, avoid police mistakes, and promote officer health and wellness.
Ethical Policing Is Courageous (EPIC)
EPIC is a peer intervention program developed by the New Orleans PD, in collaboration with community partners, to promote a culture of high-quality and ethical policing. EPIC educates, empowers, and supports the officers on the streets to play a meaningful role in “policing” one another. EPIC is a peer intervention program that teaches officers how to intervene to stop a wrongful action before it occurs.
At its core, EPIC is an officer survival program, a community safety program, and a job satisfaction program. EPIC represents a cultural change in policing that equips, encourages, and supports officers to intervene to prevent misconduct and ensure high-quality policing. Everyone benefits when potential misconduct is not perpetrated or when a potential mistake is not made.
From Warriors to Guardians: Recommitting American Police Culture to Democratic Ideals
Published: 2015 by the National Institute of Justice and the Kennedy School Program in Criminal Justice Police and Management
Citation: Rahr, Sue and Stephen K. Rice. From Warriors to Guardians: Recommitting American Police Culture to Democratic Ideals. New Perspectives in Policing Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015. NCJ 248654.
This 16-page document concludes, in part: This debate [re: militarization of police] should generate introspection by police leaders about cultures created within police agencies. This introspection should lead to a robust conversation with community members to assess whether police cultures reflect the values and expectations of the communities they serve.
New Perspectives in Policing
A series of 24 papers that resulted from the Executive Session on Policing and Public Safety convened by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and Harvard Kennedy School (HKS).
Guiding Principles on Use of Force
Published: March 2016 by the Police Executive Research Forum
This report, the 30th in PERF’s Critical Issues in Policing series, represents the culmination of 18 months of research, fieldwork, and national discussions on police use of force, especially in situations involving persons with mental illness and cases where subjects do not have firearms. This report is grounded in four national conferences; a survey of police agencies on their training of officers on force issues; field research in police agencies in the United Kingdom and here at home; and interviews of police trainers and other personnel at all ranks, as well as experts in mental health.
National Consensus Policy and Discussion Paper on Use of Force
Published: October 2017
The 16-page document is a collaborative effort among 11 law enforcement leadership and labor organizations in the United States. The policy reflects the best thinking of all consensus organizations. The purpose of this policy is to provide law enforcement officers with guidelines for the use of less-lethal and deadly force.
President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing
Published: May 2015
Available: Report: https://cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/taskforce/taskforce_finalreport.pdf
Implementation Guide: https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/nacole/pages/115/attachments/original/1570473981/President-Barack-Obama-Task-Force-on-21st-Century-Policing-Implementation-Guide.pdf?1570473981
The President charged the task force with identifying best practices and offering recommendations on how policing practices can promote effective crime reduction while building public trust. The task force recommendations, each with action items, are organized around six main topic areas or “pillars:” Building Trust and Legitimacy, Policy and Oversight, Technology and Social Media, Community Policing and Crime Reduction, Officer Training and Education, and Officer Safety and Wellness.
Policing in the 21st Century
National League of Cities Community Policing Guide
Published: September 9, 2017
In addition to a detailed analysis of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing recommendations, the guide includes short case examples from Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Montgomery County, Maryland. A list of resource agencies and funding sources, both public and nonprofit, are included by way of reference as is a sample of common community policing strategies. Funded by the COPS Office.
Report on Police Reform and Racial Justice
Published: August 13, 2020, by the U.S. Conference of Mayors
The report offers a detailed blueprint for improving policing and promoting equal justice in America’s cities. The USCM Working Group on Police Reform and Racial Justice was tasked with developing real, workable, sustainable recommendations to reform policing that will restore trust between officers and those they serve. The report provides recommendations in the following areas:
- Trust and Legitimacy
- Redefining the Role of Local Police and Public Safety, including the need to fund social services
- Equality and Due Process, including stops, searches, arrests, and police complaints
- Sanctity of Life, which includes the use of force and de-escalation
- Transparency and Accountability, which covers department policies, collective bargaining agreements, and officer certifications and decertification
The US Conference of Mayors offers an extensive bibliography of reports on police reform here: https://www.usmayors.org/issues/police-reform/
Documents/Initiatives Prepared by Activist Organizations
Black Lives Matter movement (organization)
BLM activists collaborate to imagine and create a world free of anti-Blackness, where every Black person has the social, economic, and political power to thrive. “Black Lives Matter began as a call to action in response to state-sanctioned violence and anti-Black racism. Our intention from the very beginning was to connect Black people from all over the world who have a shared desire for justice to act together in their communities. The impetus for that commitment was, and still is, the rampant and deliberate violence inflicted on us by the state.”
Campaign Zero seeks to reduce the number of citizens killed by the police. Their solutions include limiting police interventions, improving community interactions, and ensuring accountability. The campaign has ten solutions areas.
Eight Can’t Wait
The Eight Can’t Wait campaign seeks to bring immediate change to police departments. It states that research shows more restrictive use-of-force policies can reduce killings by police and save lives. It suggests activists advocate for cities to adopt all eight policies.